They decide that they had enough and needed to make a change.
Although the terms "feminism" and "feminist" did not gain widespread use until the s, they were already being used in the public parlance much earlier; for instance, Katherine Hepburn speaks of the "feminist movement" in the film Woman of the Year. According to Maggie Humm and Rebecca Walker, the history of feminism can be divided into three waves.
The first feminist wave was in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the second was in the s and s, and the third extends from the s to the present. Feminist theory emerged from these feminist movements.
|According to Taylor, who is: somebody I just go stuck with?||Christine de Pizan presents her book to Queen Isabeau of Bavaria.|
|Reformers and revolutionaries||There were a variety of ways in which feminists either subtly or overtly, encouraged divorce.|
|Women of all ages and classes demonstrated on a massive scale; the demonstrators were jailed, locked out of their meeting places, and thrown down the steps of Parliament.|
It is manifest in a variety of disciplines such as feminist geography, feminist history and feminist literary criticism. Feminism has altered predominant perspectives in a wide range of areas within Western society, ranging from culture to law.
During much of its history, most feminist movements and theories had leaders who were predominantly middle-class white women from Western Europe and North America.
Since that time, women in former European colonies and the Third World have proposed "Post-colonial" and "Third World" feminisms. Some Postcolonial Feminists, such as Chandra Talpade Mohanty, are critical of Western feminism for being ethnocentric. Black feminists, such as Angela Davis and Alice Walker, share this view.
The third wave refers to a continuation of, and a reaction to the perceived failures of, second-wave feminism, beginning in the s.
First wave First-wave feminism refers to an extended period of feminist activity during the nineteenth century and early twentieth century in the United Kingdom and the United States.
Originally it focused on the promotion of equal contract and property rights for women and the opposition to chattel marriage and ownership of married women and their children by their husbands. InFlorence Nightingale established female nurses as adjuncts to the military.
In the Representation of the People Act was passed granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who owned houses. In this was extended to all women over twenty-one.
American first-wave feminism involved a wide range of women. Others, such as Matilda Joslyn Gage, were more radical, and expressed themselves within the National Woman Suffrage Association or individually. American first-wave feminism is considered to have ended with the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitutiongranting women the right to vote in all states.
The term first wave was coined retrospectively after the term second-wave feminism began to be used to describe a newer feminist movement that focused as much on fighting social and cultural inequalities as political inequalities. Second wave Second-wave feminism refers to the period of activity in the early s and lasting through the late s.
The scholar Imelda Whelehan suggests that the second wave was a continuation of the earlier phase of feminism involving the suffragettes in the UK and USA. Second-wave feminism has continued to exist since that time and coexists with what is termed third-wave feminism.
The scholar Estelle Freedman compares first and second-wave feminism saying that the first wave focused on rights such as suffrage, whereas the second wave was largely concerned with other issues of equality, such as ending discrimination.
The feminist activist and author Carol Hanisch coined the slogan "The Personal is Political" which became synonymous with the second wave.
Simone de Beauvoir and The Second Sex The French author and philosopher Simone de Beauvoir wrote novels; monographs on philosophy, politics, and social issues; essays; biographies; and an autobiography.
Sep 27, · The advent of the new century did witness a change in the style and content of women's writing, as well as an increase in the depiction of feminine images and themes in literature. Feminists looked at how women were depicted or ignored in history, social science, literature, and other academic fields, and by the end of the s a new discipline was born: women's studies, as well as the formal study of women's history. The s fall in the second wave of the feminist movement, and it aimed at putting an end to the social and cultural inequalities between sexes. The achievements made by feminists in the second wave can be traced to the efforts made in the s.
Written inits English translation was published in It sets out a feminist existentialism which prescribes a moral revolution. She argues women have historically been considered deviant and abnormal and contends that even Mary Wollstonecraft considered men to be the ideal toward which women should aspire.
De Beauvoir argues that for feminism to move forward, this attitude must be set aside. Such a system causes women to completely lose their identity in that of their family. Friedan specifically locates this system among post-World War II middle-class suburban communities. Bra-burning also became associated with the movement, though the actual prevalence of bra-burning is debatable.
Third wave Third-wave feminism began in the early s, arising as a response to perceived failures of the second wave and also as a response to the backlash against initiatives and movements created by the second wave.
The third wave has its origins in the mids. Feminist leaders rooted in the second wave like Gloria Anzaldua, bell hooks, Chela Sandoval, Cherrie Moraga, Audre Lorde, Maxine Hong Kingston, and many other black feminists, sought to negotiate a space within feminist thought for consideration of race-related subjectivities.
Third-wave feminism also contains internal debates between difference feminists such as the psychologist Carol Gilligan who believes that there are important differences between the sexes and those who believe that there are no inherent differences between the sexes and contend that gender roles are due to social conditioning.
Post-feminism Post-feminism describes a range of viewpoints reacting to feminism. While not being "anti-feminist," post-feminists believe that women have achieved second wave goals while being critical of third wave feminist goals.Feminist scholars, particularly those from the late 20th and early 21st centuries to the present day, have revisited diverse writings, oral histories, artwork, and artifacts of women of color, working-class women, and lesbians during the early s to the early s to decenter what they view as the dominant historical narratives of the second wave of the women's liberation movement, allowing the scope of .
The feminist movement contributed to the growing trend of divorce in the United States during the ’s. There were a variety of ways in which feminists either subtly or overtly, encouraged divorce. The s fall in the second wave of the feminist movement, and it aimed at putting an end to the social and cultural inequalities between sexes.
The achievements made by feminists in the second wave can be traced to the efforts made in the s. In the s, deep cultural changes were altering the role of women in American society. More females than ever were entering the paid workforce, and this increased the dissatisfaction among women regarding huge gender disparities in pay and advancement and sexual harassment at the workplace.
Feminism and Modern Feminist Theory Essay - Feminism is a body of social theory and political movement primarily based on and motivated by the experiences of women. While generally providing a critique of social relations, many proponents of feminism also focus on analyzing gender inequality and the promotion of women's rights, interests, and issues.
Feminists looked at how women were depicted or ignored in history, social science, literature, and other academic fields, and by the end of the s a new discipline was born: women's studies, as well as the formal study of women's history.