Common Themes and the Liberal-to-Radical Continuum Virtually all feminist thinking about rape shares several underlying themes. Feminist thought and activism have challenged the myth that rape is rare and exceptional, showing that it is in fact a common experience in the lives of girls and women. It has now been amply confirmed by research: Of these women,
Feminism The period of activism in the early 20th century around securing the vote for women has been called the first wave of the feminist movement. They distinguished between sex the biological differences between men and women and gender the social and cultural differences. Second wave feminists had different approaches.
Liberal feminists emphasised the parts played by sex-role socialisation, stereotyping and discrimination. They worked to eliminate the barriers to female achievement in mathematics and other subjects. This is perhaps behind their reluctance to pursue their agenda into further and higher education, where it is perceived that choices and not constraints are operating.
Socialist feminists focused on the reproduction of the classed and gendered relations of production and reproduction, while radical feminists pointed to the male dominance of knowledge and the sexual politics of schooling.
Because socialist and radical feminists added theorisations of ideology and power to the liberal feminist analysis, both socialist and radical feminists were interested in the social construction of choices.
However, black feminists called attention to the neglect of race in second wave feminism. They focused on how race, class and gender intersect and questioned what, if anything, all women have in common.
More recently, poststructuralist feminists have built on this work, to question more earlier feminist assumptions.
After all, if gender is so different from sex, why are there only two genders and why do women become feminine and men become masculine? The fact that we think they do is because of how society not biology works.
Recent work has pointed to contradictions in an apparent societal embrace of feminist language in the West such as choice, female empowerment, and sexual freedom and the return of regressive, sexist and anti-feminist language, images and practices.
There has also been a resurgence in forms of feminist activism and protest, such as international Slut Walk marchesand campaigning organizations such as UK Feminista and Object.
The books and websites below document feminisms old and new, point to contemporary gender issues and provide teaching resources for those wanting to bring feminist ideas into the classroom. Useful Links BBC archive on second wave feminism: This collection of television and radio programmes remembers some of the major feminist thinkers of s second wave feminism and highlights the issues they addressed and attitudes they contested.
The F-Word is an online magazine dedicated to talking about and sharing ideas on contemporary UK feminism. UK Feminista is a feminist campaigning organisation and a link to other campaigning organisations.
Their purpose is to end the continuing inequalities between women and men. MsG Resources for introducing feminism into the school curriculum: The US-based Miss G Project for Equity in Education is a grassroots young feminist organisation working to combat all forms of oppression in and through education, including sexism, homophobia, racism and classism.
The website includes links to resources to help teachers and educators teach young people about gender issues and feminist ides. Equals is a partnership of leading charities in the UK that have come together to step-up the call to demand a more equal world.
Further Reading Gill, R. Tibballs Talking equality: London, Equal Opportunities Commission: A report, drawing on a small number of focus groups, looking at how a variety of women feel about feminism.
Buckingham, Open University Press: It documents the various masculinity politics which have emerged and analyses their effects. Gender, Culture and Social Change. McRobbie asks what is left of feminism.
Her depressing answer involves her in theoretical analyses of popular culture from Bridget Jones to pornography. The New Feminist Movement. In this book, Redfern and Aune map the contemporary feminist movement and its relevance to society.JUDITH LORBER The Variety of Feminisms and their Contribution to Gender Equality Introduction My focus is the continuities and discontinuities in recent feminist.
Different Kinds of Feminism Overview: By reviewing different types of feminism, people gain an understanding of the range of feminisms that have emerged since the s and how their different approaches respond to problems of patriarchy and power. This paper is divided into sections that group authors representing the major currents of feminist analysis of male violence.
During the 70s, for example, writers accorded a predominant role to socio-political structures; since the 80s, a more global vision has emerged, in which sexuality, the construction of heterosexuality and the social control of women constitute the main elements.
Lesbian feminism presented one way for women to free themselves from both male domination and heterosexism. Its analysis of society was based on two central claims.
The first was an assertion that heterosexuality encompassed much more than a form of sexual desire, that it also functioned as an. Philosophical feminism: Philosophical feminism, a loosely related set of approaches in various fields of philosophy that (1) emphasizes the role of gender in the formation of traditional philosophical problems and concepts, (2) analyzes the ways in which traditional philosophy reflects .
This guide stresses the systematic causal analysis of gender inequality. The analytical questions raised and the readings listed consider why and how gender inequality arises, varies across and within societies, persists over generations, produces conformity by individuals and institutions, resists change, and sometimes changes dramatically.