A South African study of women who were seeking abortion on psychiatric grounds followed up women who were refused abortion as well as women who were granted abortion for months. Those who had abortions were more likely to be under psychiatric treatment, admitted to increased use of alcohol, tobacco, or tranquilizers, had experienced adverse personality changes, and had greater social isolation compared to women who had been refused abortion and had a variety of other pregnancy outcomes. Summarizes various studies including those related to the outcome of refused abortions and concludes that abortion is not the answer to social ills. Correlates with Pregnancy Outcome," N.
Oklahoma law requires that abortion counseling include state developed materials; as of Septemberhowever, the materials had not yet been issued. Psychological Impact Abortion opponents also claim that having an abortion will result in a barrage of negative mental health outcomes.
This implication that abortion is psychologically riskier than carrying an unwanted pregnancy to term is misguided, as the most methodologically sound research conducted over the past two decades does not find a causal relationship between abortion and severe negative mental health outcomes.
In 19 states, the mandated materials include information on the psychological effects of abortion see tablecolumns 3 and 4. In 11 of these states including Oklahoma, where the materials have not yet been developedthe information is included pursuant to a specific state law; in the other eight states, the information is provided without a specific legal mandate.
In 11 states, the information in the materials prepares women to feel a range of emotions after an abortion—from sadness to relief. Women are reassured that after the abortion, it is common to experience emotions that are simultaneously positive and negative.
Professional counseling is suggested before and after the procedure so that a woman feels comfortable with her decision; counseling is specifically recommended if a woman experiences symptoms related to depression.
The materials in the remaining seven states provide a less balanced view of the emotions a woman may experience after having an abortion. In three of these states—Michigan, Nebraska and South Carolina—the materials exclusively detail negative mental health outcomes.
In Nebraska, for example, the materials state that "some women experience reactions such as sadness, grief, regret, anxiety and guilt," and information on the possible positive feelings is not included. Moreover, in South Dakota, Texas, Utah and West Virginia, the materials go even further, asserting either that a woman may experience suicidal thoughts or that she will suffer from what abortion foes call "postabortion traumatic stress syndrome.
Notably, neither the American Psychological Association nor the American Psychiatric Association recognizes this disorder. Fetal Pain Another assertion that is often used by abortion opponents to discourage women from having abortions is that a fetus has the ability to feel pain; however, researchers have not been able to conclusively determine at what point in development, if at all, a fetus perceives pain.
For a fetus to perceive pain, however, not only must the physical structures be in place, they must be able to transmit sensory information and the fetus must be able to interpret the information. In three of these states, the health department has acted under the direction of the legislature, whereas the other two have included the information without a legal mandate.
Two other states are worth noting here. Oklahoma law requires fetal pain to be included in the materials; however, the health department has yet to publish them. And, Illinois enacted a separate postviability law in that requires a physician to tell a woman obtaining an abortion after viability that the fetus may feel pain and to offer her the option of anesthesia for the fetus.
The materials differ across the five states. Materials in three states Arkansas, Georgia and Minnesota identify 20 weeks as the point at which the fetus may begin to feel pain. In the two remaining states, the materials suggest that pain may be perceived even earlier in pregnancy.
The South Dakota materials do not specify an age; instead, they state generally that an "unborn child may feel physical pain.
Notably, in all five states this information is required to be provided to every woman regardless of her stage in pregnancy. Referrals In Casey, the Supreme Court ruled that it is within the boundaries of informed consent for abortion counseling laws to require additional information that could be useful to a woman should she decide to continue her pregnancy.
Accordingly, materials in 20 states provide directories with contact information for resources that offer a range of support services, including adoption services, financial assistance, child care, health services and prenatal care see tablecolumns 6 and 7.
The referral information can be as brief as referring the woman to a toll-free hotline or as detailed as a list of organizations arranged by county or type of service provided. Maintaining the scientific integrity of abortion counseling information goes beyond politics— it is a matter of sound public health policy.
In all 20 states, these directories include contact information for organizations commonly known as "crisis pregnancy centers" CPCs.
CPCs often bill themselves as organizations that provide comprehensive services and support to women with unplanned pregnancies, including abortion counseling, information on adoption, parenting classes, and baby clothes and equipment.
According to a recent report released by Rep. Henry Waxman D-CAhowever, CPCs often provide false and misleading information to pregnant women about the health effects of abortion in hopes of dissuading them from seeking an abortion see box.
Furthermore, according to a June report by the National Abortion Federation NAFthe extent to which CPCs "provide real services to women is not as great as they often lead women to believe. Moreover, even though women considering abortion are, by definition, sexually experienced and at risk of experiencing a subsequent unplanned pregnancy, only 13 of the 20 states provide women with referral information for family planning services.
Typically, these lists include contact information for local clinics where contraceptive devices and counseling can be obtained.
The Future of Abortion Counseling Our analysis of state abortion counseling laws and materials reveals that policymakers and public health officials frequently disregard the basic principles of informed consent in favor of furthering a highly politicized antiabortion goal. And, all signs point to their continued interest in doing so.
Abortion-specific "informed consent" legislation was introduced in 27 states this year. In some cases, the bills would establish new counseling mandates in states without such a requirement; in others, the bills would amend current counseling requirements.
For example, legislation in 12 states would amend current law to require that women be given information on fetal pain. A bill in one state seeks to add information, although discredited, on the link between abortion and breast cancer. This phenomenon, moreover, is not limited to state-level politics; it also plays a role on Capitol Hill.
Similar to measures passed on the state level, the legislation would require abortion providers to recite a congressionally scripted statement that Congress has determined "an unborn child has the physical structures necessary to experience pain.
Maintaining the scientific integrity of abortion counseling information goes beyond politics—it is a matter of sound public health policy.Elizabethtown College does not discriminate on the basis of gender, race, color, religion, age, disability, marital status, veteran status, national or ethnic origin, ancestry, sexual orientation, gender identity and expression, genetic information, possession of a general education development certificate as compared to a high school diploma, or any other legally protected status.
Academy of Social Sciences ASS The United Kingdom Association of Learned Societies in the Social Sciences formed in gave rise to the Academy of Learned Societies for the Social Sciences incorporated , which became the Academy of Social Sciences on ASS Commission on the Social Sciences Notes from the meeting on by Ron Johnston.
Cowper's Bookshelf Rites of Passage at $, to $1 Million+, new edition John Lucht Viceroy Press c/o Cardinal Publishers Group (dist.) North Shadeland Ave., Suite A. THE BIBLE AND ABORTION- Introduction Abortion (as a medical procedure) is never mentioned in the Bible.
So that must mean that the Bible has nothing relevant to say on the subject, Right? THE BIBLE AND ABORTION- What Does the Bible Say? Abortion is one of the most critical issues of our generation.
Christians need to [ ]. RESPECTED HISTORIAN RALF GEORG REUTH ARGUES THAT HITLER may have had a ‘real’ reason to hate the Jews. Noted for his breadth of knowledge on World Wars I and II and its prominent figures, German historian Reuth has enjoyed much acclaim for his numerous books covering the World Wars era.
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