It is designed to change drinking and drug use behaviors by changing beliefs, attitudes, risk perceptions, motivations, and the knowledge of how to reduce their risk of alcohol and drug related problems throughout their lives. Universal audiences are those without any known increased risk factors who might only need the risk reduction information provided in the prevention component. Some examples of potential universal audiences are all incoming freshman at a university, or employees at a company that wants to provide preventative programming to its personnel. Though universal audiences typically receive prevention information, many can also benefit from participating in the intervention component.
Infancy[ edit ] Early researchers studying the development of the frontal cortex thought that it was functionally silent during the first year of life. Elderly[ edit ] Some studies of aging and cognition focus on working memory processes and declines in attentional control.
One study used fMRI measures during a Stroop task comparing neural activity of attentional control in younger 21—27 years and older participants 60—75 years. Conditions included increased competition and increased conflict.
Results showed evidence of decreases in responsiveness in brain areas associated with attentional control for the older group.
This result suggests that older people may have decreases in their ability to utilize attentional control in their everyday lives. Relevance to mental illness[ edit ] Studies have shown that there is a high probability that those who suffer from low attentional control also experience other mental conditions.
Low attentional control is more common among those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD ,"a disorder with persistent age-inappropriate symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that are sufficient to cause impairment in major life activities".
This is due to the increasing problematic occurrences experts are seeing in the field regarding attentional control in relation to other mental illnesses.
Attentional bias causes a person to processes emotionally negative information preferentially over emotionally positive information. Participants were selected after being measured on scales for PTSD, anxiety proneness, attentional control, and attentional bias.
Results indicated attentional control was inversely related to attentional bias. PTSD patients with higher attentional control exhibited less attentional bias.
Individual differences in attentional control had an effect on anxiety problems in PTSD. The assumption of this theory is that the effects of anxiety on attentional control are key to understanding the relationship between anxiety and performance.
In general, anxiety inhibits attentional control on a specific task by impairing processing efficiency. The inhibition function prevents stimuli unrelated to a task and responses from disrupting performance.
The shifting function is used to allocate attention to the stimuli that are most relevant to the task. The updating function is used to update and monitor information in working memory.
First, the efficiency of the central executive is impaired by anxiety. Second, anxiety impairs the inhibition function, and third, anxiety impairs the shifting function.
Specifically, research on attentional capture has two modes: The voluntary mode is a top down approach where attention is shifted according to high-level cognitive processes. Mindfulness[ edit ] Even four days of mindfulness meditation training can significantly improve visuo-spatial processing, working memory and executive functioning.
Participants did tasks of sustained attention, inhibition, switching, and object detection. These tasks were done before and after an 8-week mindfulness based stress reduction course MBSRand were compared to a control group. There were no significant differences between the groups, meaning that the MBSR course did not affect attentional control.
Prominent authors who take a modular approach to cognitive development include Jerry FodorElizabeth Spelke and Steven Pinker. In contrast, other authors such as Annette Karmiloff-SmithMark Johnson and Linda Smith have instead advocated taking a more interactive or dynamical systems approaches to cognitive development.
According to these approaches, which are known as neuroconstructivist approaches, cognitive systems interact over developmental time as certain cognitive faculties are required for the subsequent acquisition of other faculties in other areas. Amongst authors who take neuroconstructivist approaches to development, particular importance has been attached to attentional control, since it is thought to be a domain-general process that may influence the subsequent acquisition of other skills in other areas.Selective attention is a cognitive process in which a person attends to one or a few sensory inputs while ignoring the other ones.
Selective attention can be likened to the manner by which a bottleneck restricts the flow rate of a fluid. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder may have to cope with considerable deficits in social and communication skills and a tendency to exhibit inappropriate behaviors in social situations.
Jan 26, · Several competing pathways for AEA biosynthesis have been described. The best-described pathway is shown in the figure below.
AEA biosynthesis is initiated following a postsynaptic neuronal depolarization and an influx of calcium.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a mental health problem that can occur after a traumatic event like war, assault, or disaster. PTSD treatment can help. Find handouts, apps, videos, and courses based on current research.
This site provides educational resources for Veterans and also for health care providers, researchers, and the general public. The Online Writing Lab (OWL) at Purdue University houses writing resources and instructional material, and we provide these as a free service of the Writing Lab at Purdue.
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