Etymology and theory of eugenics

He also acknowledged that certain geographical areas with more complex ethnic compositions, including much of the Horn of Africa and the India subcontinent, did not fit into his racial paradigm. As such, he noted that:

Etymology and theory of eugenics

Pre-Galtonian philosophies[ edit ] The philosophy was most famously expounded by Platowho believed human reproduction should be monitored and controlled by the state. Mates, in Plato's Republic, would be chosen by a "marriage number" in which the quality of the individual would be quantitatively analyzed, and persons of high numbers would be allowed to procreate with other persons of high numbers.

In theory, this would lead to predictable results and the improvement of the human race. However, Plato acknowledged the failure of the "marriage number" since "gold soul" persons could still produce "bronze soul" children. Other ancient civilizations, such as Rome[3] Athens [4] and Spartapracticed infanticide through exposure and execution as a form of phenotypic selection.

In Sparta, newborns were inspected by the city's elders, who decided the fate of the infant. If the child was deemed incapable of living, it was usually exposed [5] [6] in the Apothetae near the Taygetus mountain. Trials for babies included bathing them in wine and exposing them to the elements.

To Sparta, this would ensure only the strongest survived and procreated. In addition, patriarchs in Roman society were given the right to "discard" infants at their discretion.

This was often done by drowning undesired newborns in the Tiber River. Commenting on the Roman practice of eugenics, the philosopher Seneca wrote that: Yet this is not the work of anger, but of reason - to separate the sound from the worthless". Sir Francis Galton systematized these ideas and practices according to new knowledge about the evolution of man and animals provided by the theory of his half-cousin Charles Darwin during the s and s.

After reading Darwin's Origin of SpeciesGalton built upon Darwin's ideas whereby the mechanisms of natural selection were potentially thwarted by human civilization. He reasoned that, since many human societies sought to protect the underprivileged and weak, those societies were at odds with the natural selection responsible for extinction of the weakest; and only by changing these social policies could society be saved from a "reversion towards mediocrity", a phrase he first coined in statistics and which later changed to the now common " regression towards the mean ".

Galton's basic argument was "genius" and "talent" were hereditary traits in humans although neither he nor Darwin yet had a working model of this type of heredity. He concluded since one could use artificial selection to exaggerate traits in other animals, one could expect similar results when applying such models to humans.

As he wrote in the introduction to Hereditary Genius: I propose to show in this book that a man's natural abilities are derived by inheritance, under exactly the same limitations as are the form and physical features of the whole organic world. Consequently, as it is easy, notwithstanding those limitations, to obtain by careful selection a permanent breed of dogs or horses gifted with peculiar powers of running, or of doing anything else, so it would be quite practicable to produce a highly gifted race of men by judicious marriages during several consecutive generations.

Galton did not propose any selection methods; rather, he hoped a solution would be found if social mores changed in a way that encouraged people to see the importance of breeding.

He first used the word eugenic in his Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development, [16] a book in which he meant "to touch on various topics more or less connected with that of the cultivation of race, or, as we might call it, with 'eugenic' questions". He included a footnote to the word "eugenic" which read: That is, with questions bearing on what is termed in Greek, eugenes namely, good in stock, hereditary endowed with noble qualities.

This, and the allied words, eugeneia, etc.A cabal is a group of people united in some close design together, usually to promote their private views or interests in a church, state, or other community, often by intrigue, usually unbeknownst to persons outside their are sometimes secret societies composed of a few designing persons, and at other times are manifestations of .

Negroid (also known as Congoid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon. The term has been used by forensic and physical anthropologists to refer to individuals and populations that share certain morphological and skeletal traits that are frequent among populations in most of Sub-Saharan Africa and isolated parts of .

The eugenics movement became negatively associated with Nazi Germany and the Holocaust when many of the defendants at the Nuremberg trials attempted to justify their human rights abuses by claiming there was little difference between the Nazi eugenics programs and the U.S.

eugenics programs. Recent Examples on the Web. Here is the question: If the protagonist volunteers for her own victimhood, can it be called a work of feminism?

Etymology and theory of eugenics

— New York Times, "Her Lover May Not Exist, but Her Doubts About the Patriarchy Are Real," 6 July And, of course, there are the black men who claim that (white) feminism is inspiring black women to .

Etymology. The word "race", interpreted to mean an identifiable group of people who share a common descent, was introduced into English in about , from the Old French rasse (), from Italian razza [citation needed].An earlier but etymologically distinct word for a similar concept was the Latin word genus meaning a group sharing qualities .

Underlying ideas quite ancient in origin –Eugenics movements in the United States, Germany, and Scandinavia favored the negative approach.

Negative Eugenics “Degeneracy theory” dated from s –Masturbation, cited in medical textbooks, first biological.

Eugenetica - Wikipedia