Yale historian Leonard Woods Larabee has identified eight characteristics of the Loyalists that made them essentially conservative and loyal to the king and Britain: They were alienated when the Patriots resorted to violence, such as burning houses and tarring and feathering. They wanted to take a middle-of-the road position and were angry when forced by the Patriots to declare their opposition.
The British North American colonists had just helped to win a world war and most, like Rush, had never been more proud to be British. And yet, in a little over a decade, those same colonists would declare their independence and break away from the British Empire.
Seen fromnothing would have seemed as improbable as the American Revolution. A revolution fought in the name of liberty allowed slavery to persist.
Resistance to centralized authority tied disparate colonies ever closer together under new governments. The revolution created politicians eager to foster republican selflessness and protect the public good but also encouraged individual self-interest and personal gain. But once unleashed, these popular forces continued to shape the new nation and indeed the rest of American history.
In this section, we will look broadly at some of the long-term political, intellectual, cultural, and economic developments in the eighteenth century that set the context for the crisis of the s and s. Two factors contributed to these failures.
Constant war was politically consuming and economically expensive. Second, competing visions of empire divided British officials. Old Whigs and their Tory supporters envisioned an authoritarian empire, based on conquering territory and extracting resources. The radical or patriot Whigs based their imperial vision on trade and manufacturing instead of land and resources.
They argued that economic growth, not raising taxes, would solve the national debt. There were occasional attempts to reform the administration of the colonies, but debate between the two sides prevented coherent reform. InJames Otis Jr.
Many colonists came to see their assemblies as having the same jurisdiction over them that Parliament exercised over those in England. They interpreted British inaction as justifying their tradition of local governance. The Crown and Parliament, however, disagreed. In both Britain and the colonies, land was the key to political participation, but because land was more easily obtained in the colonies, a higher proportion of male colonists participated in politics.
These ideas—generally referred to as the ideology of republicanism—stressed the corrupting nature of power and the need for those involved in self-governing to be virtuous i. Patriots would need to be ever vigilant against the rise of conspiracies, centralized control, and tyranny. Only a small fringe in Britain held these ideas, but in the colonies, they were widely accepted.
Perhaps no single philosopher had a greater impact on colonial thinking than John Locke.
In his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke argued that the mind was originally a tabula rasa or blank slate and that individuals were formed primarily by their environment. The aristocracy then were wealthy or successful because they had greater access to wealth, education, and patronage and not because they were innately superior.
Locke followed this essay with Some Thoughts Concerning Education, which introduced radical new ideas about the importance of education. Education would produce rational human beings capable of thinking for themselves and questioning authority rather than tacitly accepting tradition.
These ideas slowly came to have far-reaching effects in the colonies and, later, the new nation. Between andthe Rev. George Whitefield, an enigmatic, itinerant preacher, traveled the colonies preaching Calvinist sermons to huge crowds. In his wake, new traveling preachers picked up his message and many congregations split.
Both Locke and Whitefield had empowered individuals to question authority and to take their lives into their own hands.
In other ways, eighteenth-century colonists were becoming more culturally similar to Britons, a process often referred to as Anglicization. As colonial economies grew, they quickly became an important market for British manufacturing exports.
Colonists with disposable income and access to British markets attempted to mimic British culture. By the middle of the eighteenth century, middling-class colonists could also afford items previously thought of as luxuries like British fashions, dining wares, and more.
The desire to purchase British goods meshed with the desire to enjoy British liberties. It was truly a world war, fought between multiple empires on multiple continents.Shop new, used, rare, and out-of-print books. Powell's is an independent bookstore based in Portland, Oregon.
Browse staff picks, author features, and more. Mar 10, · Russia signalled her withdrawal from World War One soon after the October Revolution of , and the country turned in on itself with a bloody civil war between the Bolsheviks and the.
Status of Women in the New United States. In the American colonies it was not uncommon for women to pursue various occupations, such as printers, innkeepers, merchants and teachers.
Loyalists were American colonists who stayed loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time. They were opposed by the Patriots, who supported the revolution, and called them "persons inimical to the liberties of America".
Prominent Loyalists repeatedly assured the British government that many thousands of them would. Discovery, Exploration, Colonies, & Revolution. Updated July 3, JUMP TO.. TIMELINES & MAPS / PRIMARY DOCUMENTS. DISCOVERY & EXPLORATION.
NATIVE AMERICANS & COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE. Shop new, used, rare, and out-of-print books. Powell's is an independent bookstore based in Portland, Oregon. Browse staff picks, author features, and more.