The order of the works is not chronological the chronology is now difficult to determine but was deliberately chosen by Theophrastus to constitute a well-structured system.
A Whole-system farming method But that concept and method have dealt with only eco-technical aspect. Rajbhandari further developed the holistic concept and approach of bio-intensive farming system to address The scientific method bio 100 socio-economic, cultural and political aspects as well Rajbhandari, Rajbhandari has defined bio-intensive farming system BIFS as a biologically intensive mixed farming system, which relies on the intensive engagement of the farmers; optimization of organic recycling through crop rotations; integrated plant nutrient management IPNM ; and integrated organic pest management IOPM with the use of bio-pesticides, botanical pesticides, and biota e.
It is a holistic system of sustainable management of natural resources in a given agro-ecosystem with specific cultural and knowledge base. Sustainable bio-intensive farming BIF system, which emphasizes biodiversity conservation; recycling of nutrients; synergy among crops, animals, soils, and other biological components; and regeneration and conservation of resources is a type of agro-ecological approach.
It has been serving as a model for promoting ecological farms and eco-tourism for higher productions and income generation in small scale.
System[ edit ] The biointensive method provides many benefits as compared with conventional farming and gardening methods, and is an inexpensive, easily implemented sustainable production method that can be used by people who lack the resources or desire to implement commercial chemical and fossil-fuel-based forms of agriculture.
According to Jeavons and other proponents, when properly implemented, farmers using biointensive techniques have the potential to: This allows more land to remain in a wild state, preserving ecosystem services and promoting genetic diversity.
The following outline of the methods approximates the descriptions found in the popular biointensive handbook, How to Grow More Vegetables and fruits, nuts, berries, grains and other crops Than You Ever Thought Possible on Less Land Than You Can Imagine, by John Jeavons, now in its eighth edition, and in seven languages, including braille.
When the next trench is dug, that soil is dropped into the empty space of the first trench, and the lower layer is again loosened with a spading fork. This process is repeated along the full length of the bed.
The final trench is filled with the soil that was removed from the first trench. When an entire bed has been double dug, the soil will have greater drainage and aeration, which allows the roots to grow much deeper and reach more nutrients.
Despite the fact that no soil has been added, the bed is raised due to the aeration. It is worth noting that hard, unworked soil should be double dug each season until the soil has attained good structure and long lasting aeration. After double digging the first season, deep tilling during subsequent seasons can be quickly accomplished with a u-barparticularly in the cases of larger minifarms or commercial farms.
Composting allows the plants to transform and enrich the soil with organic matter, and also to return nutrients to the soil. Biointensive composting is fairly straightforward, emphasizing the health and diversity of the microbes that break down and become a part of the compost.
Thus, relatively cooler composting is practiced, and plant materials are preferred over animal materials. Soil is often combined with the compost to inoculate the pile with microbes.
Without human waste recycling, however, nutrients and organic matter are constantly removed from the soil as food that is consumed by the farmer and flushed away.
Therefore, when safe and legal human waste recycling is possible—as in many places it already is—that fertility can, and should, be returned to the soil.
Thus, crops such as alfalfa, which has exceptionally deep roots, and cereal rye, which has a particularly high volume of roots, are valued.
The soil air from the development of deep soil structure, combined with the microbe- and nutrient-rich compost allow the crops to be planted intensively.
To plant intensively, beds are 4 to 6 feet 1. Crops are not planted in traditional rows according to a square pattern, but are planted in a hexagonal or triangular pattern in the bed so that no space is left unnecessarily unused.
These wide beds and close spacings not only allow more plants per area up to 4 times as manybut also enable the plants to form a living mulch over the soil, keeping in moisture and shading out weeds. Additionally, whenever possible seedlings are started in flats or nursery beds, so that more garden space is available to large plants and so that the seedlings can be more closely spaced before transplant, forming a living mulch in the flat as well.
Companion planting is described as taking place both in space, which is traditionally called companion plantingand in time, which is traditionally called crop rotation. Companion planting can be used to improve the health and growth of crops, and also as another form of intensive planting, which uses vertical space more efficiently by mixing shallow rooting plants with deep rooting plants or slow growing plants with fast growing plants.
In order to achieve sustainable fertility on a closed system basis, the biointensive method uses carbon and calorie farming, an aikido-style of work using the least amount of energy or effort to achieve the greatest amount of work or productioncomposting—including safe and legal human waste recycling—the use of open pollinated seeds, and limited land use, which allows farmers and gardeners to retain more of the land in a wild state for genetic diversity and an ecosystem balance.Timeline of the history of scientific method Notes and references [ edit ] ^ Peter Achinstein, "General Introduction" (pp.
1–5) to Science Rules: A Historical Introduction to Scientific Methods. Biologists and other scientists use the scientific method to ask questions about the natural world. The scientific method begins with an observation, which leads the scientist to ask a question.
The scientific method begins with an observation, which leads the scientist to ask a question. Learn bio scientific method biology with free interactive flashcards.
Choose from different sets of bio scientific method biology flashcards on Quizlet. Tutorialrank is a online tutorial store we provide BIO Assignment: The Scientific Method.
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky. It takes the form of a multicoloured circular srmvision.comws caused by sunlight always appear in the section of sky directly opposite the sun.
Rainbows can be full circles. · Explain each step of the scientific method as it applies to 1) your Web experiment and 2) your real-life example. Your paper should include a total of two explanations of the scientific method.) Format your paper, in-text citations, and references according to APA standards.