Student Answers moustacio Student Controversies have arose over the moral nature of using atomic bombs to end the war against Japan, thus killing millions of innocent civilians. Such actions seemed to represent an attempt by the US to impose total control over Japan. Others have also claimed that there were other morally preferable ways to end the war in the Pacific.
On telephone calls between continents that are routed via a geosynchronous satellite, the time between when one person stops speaking and then hears the other person reply is half a second 0.
This can cause immense confusion if the other person starts speaking before the first has finished. It can take several sentences before the confusion is finally sorted out.
Two-way digital communication between machines at high data rates suffers from this problem even more acutely, and protocols must be established which prevent conflicts arising. Communication with a future lunar base will be worse, and for voice communications will necessitate an "over to you" simplex radio communications type approach.
Two-way interactive communication with any station beyond the moon is basically impossible. Although there are no manned bases currently on other planets, this delay is presently of great concern to people who send remotely controlled spacecraft to Mars.
There is no possibility of detecting an incipient vehicular crash in time to do anything about it. The vehicle must thus be given a very large degree of autonomous control e. Later, the rovers got artificial intelligence upgrades to help determine interesting targets.
This was helpful, because a lot can change on Mars in a few minutes — rampaging dust storms, loose soil, and other unexpected things can spoil the best-laid plans.
The Curiosity mission will do that for some time, though. How exactly do you drive the one-ton Mars rover Curiosity, when the driver is, on average, million miles away? NASA can transmit a series of specific commands, which the rover then dutifully carries out — To what extent was the atomic NASA can give Curiosity a target, and then trust the rover to autonomously find its own way there.
RSVP can then be used to plot a move go forward 10 meters, turn 30 degrees right, go forward 3 meters — or to pick an end point, which Curiosity will dutifully, autonomously navigate to.
To safely navigate Mars, Curiosity uses its Hazcams hazard avoidance cameras to build a stereoscopic map of its environment, identifies which objects are too large to drive over, and then plots out a course to the end point.
We have abolished space here on the little Earth; we can never abolish the space that yawns between the stars.
Once again, as in the days when Homer sang, we are face to face with immensity and must accept its grandeur and terror, its inspiring possibilities and its dreadful restraints. From a world that has become too small, we are moving out into one that will be forever too large, whose frontiers will recede from us always more swiftly than we can reach out toward them.
When we have harnessed nuclear energy for space flight, the solar system will contract until it is little larger than the Earth today.
This achievement, which will be witnessed within a century, might appear to make even the solar system a comfortable, homely place, with such giant planets as Saturn and Jupiter playing much the same role in our thoughts as do Africa or Asia today.
Their qualitative differences of climate, atmosphere, and gravity, fundamental though they are, do not concern us at the moment.
The marvelous telephone and television network that will soon emnesh the whole world, making all men neighbors, cannot be extended into space. It will never be possible to converse with anyone on another planet.
Do not misunderstand this statement. But the messages will take minutes—sometimes hours—on their journey, because radio and light waves travel at the same limited speed ofmiles a second.
Twenty years from now you will be able to listen to a friend on Mars, but the words you hear will have left his mouth at least three minutes earlier, and your reply will take a corresponding time to reach him.
In such circumstances, an exchange of verbal messages is possible—but not a conversation. Even in the case of the nearby Moon, the two-and-a-half second time lag will be annoying.
At distances of more than a million miles, it will he intolerable. It will be a perpetual reminder of universal laws and limitations against which not all our technology can ever prevail.
For it seems as certain as anything can be that no signal—still less any material object—can ever travel faster than light.
The velocity of light is the ultimate speed limit, being part of the very structure of space and time.
At the worst, these will amount to eleven hours—the time it takes a radio signal to span the orbit of Pluto, the outermost planet. Between the three inner worlds Earth, Mars, and Venus, it will never be more than twenty minutes—not enough to interfere seriously with commerce or administration, but more than sufficient to shatter those personal links of sound or vision that can give us a sense of direct contact with friends on Earth, wherever they may be.
It is basically a message specific chatbot.Submerged in so many years of total war, the atomic weapons appeared to be a viable option to end the war quickly, and in the eyes of the Allies, the fear of Japanese casualties was, unfortunately.
HIROSHIMA ATOMIC BOMB - August (This image was scanned and released by the Imperial War Museum/cc) Few issues in American history - perhaps only slavery itself - are as charged as the dropping of the atomic bombs on Japan.
Dec 07, · The reader should be struck foremost by the realization that the atomic bomb and its use did not occur in a vacuum.
Even the concept of mutually-assured destruction, an idea that everyone assumes. On the 70th anniversary of the bombing of Hiroshima on August 6, , the National Security Archive updates its publication of the most comprehensive on-line collection of declassified U.S.
government documents on the first use of the atomic bomb and the end of the war in the Pacific. Newsfinder e-magazine is presenting a detailed article about Anu and Parmanu - Indian ideas about Atomic physics.
Our climate is absorbing a lot of heat. When scientists add up all of the heat warming the oceans, land, and atmosphere and melting the ice, they find our climate is accumulating 4 Hiroshima atomic bombs worth of heat every second.